You'd need to write some code to do it, but it wouldn't be hard.
To get a list of all the menuitems on your Joomla site you can do:
$app = Factory::getApplication();
$sitemenu = $app->getMenu();
$menuitems = $sitemenu->getItems(array(), array());
Then you can cycle through the
$menuitems examining the
query property which is an array with values something like
array("option" => "com_content", "view" => "article", "id" => "123").
So you could write an administrator module to do what you want.
Inside the module look for the case where an administrator is editing an article, indicated by your URL parameters being something like
?option=com_content&view=article&layout=edit&id=123. Then run the code above, look for where the
query property has the appropriate values, and matches the
id of the URL parameter, and then output the
title for each matching menuitem.
You can find a guide to the menuitems API here, and on that page there is sample module code to get you started.