For security reasons, Joomla! uses a CSRF Token to secure any sensitive information in order to attempt to prevent any malicious form manipulation.
The short answer you need the token to attempt to do this via url but it might not work.
Your best bet would be to use your favorite web browser autofill capabilities.
Since 3.9 there's Joomla\CMS\Router\Route::link() method which takes client (site or administrator) as first argument.
$link = 'index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1';
echo '<a href="' . JRoute::link('site', $link) . '">Test</a>';
If you have the article object available, you should use ContentHelperRoute::getArticleRoute() and ...