Does Joomla 3 has some default options to set a smaller image size in the Blog view (thumbnail) and the normal size in the article?
Nope, not directly. Each article can have two different images:
The intro image is used for article teasers like a blog view or search results.
The fulltext image is used for the article view.
So you could use the same image but different sizes. Besides that you have always the possibility to create a template overwrite and alternate the output.