The short answer is "Yes", mostly because technically you can build systems for all of your tasks on top of Joomla. The better question though is should you build these things on Joomla. And my answer to that is "probably not".
One of the biggest benefits to working with Joomla (at least in my experience) is the plethora of existing components that you can utilize to complete tasks without having to code. And more importantly, these components have already been tested at least to a degree, so they are likely to be more robust and less buggy than new code that you write.
While all of the things you list can be done in Joomla, I don't see anything that matches with how most people use Joomla. It looks like you want a piece of the admin interface (maybe) but none of the front-end display. This means that you will likely not find prebuilt pieces to fit your needs and will build a lot of this from scratch. And honestly, if you're going to build from scratch, your best bet is to build it in the language and framework that you know. (Which for me and others here, is Joomla, so we would build it in Joomla. If that is true for you, do the same).
As an aside, I would recommend taking a look at the Joomla Framework (http://framework.joomla.org/). With this, you won't have a prebuilt CMS with an admin side and such. So you do end up building every piece you need, but the framework provides the structure for many of the base pieces (application, models, views, controllers, routers, etc.)
The framework also utilizes Composer (https://getcomposer.org/) and Packagist (https://packagist.org/), which allow you to pull in other packages into your application easily. I've used this to include, for example, the AWS SDK, which it looks like you will need.
You can also use Composer and Packagist without the framework, so you still aren't really locked in to Joomla to get this done.